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Lesson 0.2 Objective Words (Level 5A)
salvage ['sal-vij] the act of saving anything from fire, danger, etc.; property or goods saved from damage or destruction. After the flooding, there were many salvage cars for sale in New Orleans, but the buyers were very cautious.
dip [dip] verb - to sink or drop down. Tony enjoys watching sun set, especially the last moment when the sun dipped below the horizon.
contemplate ['kon-tuhm-pleyt] verb - to consider thoroughly; think fully or deeply about. Robert's math teacher assigned a complex problem to him yesterday. He kept himself in his study room in the evening to contemplate a solution.
tenacity [tuh-'nas-i-tee] noun - persistent determination. Rock climbing is a challenging sport. Beginners need to develop courage and tenacity in order to progress the difficulty levels and reach to the top.
harsh [hahrsh] adj - ungentle and unpleasant in action or effect. Tom received harsh words from his teacher when he was late for his class again.
precaution [pri-'kaw-shuhn] noun - caution employed beforehand. All workers need to follow safety precautions when using heavy machinery.
twinge [twinj] noun - a sudden, sharp pain. On damp days, Mr. Thompson is often bothered by a twinge in the joint of his bones. He has not found an effective medicine to alleviate the problem.
synthetic [sin-'thet-ik] adj and noun - compounds formed through a chemical process by human agency, as opposed to those of natural origin; something made by such a chemical process. Synthetic fiber is usually tougher and stronger than the natural ones. It does not get rotten in the hot and humid weather.
Some Twin Citians may choose to hunker inside and stay out of winter’s frigid windchills and subzero temperatures. But to many, braving the arctic weather is just all in a day’s work.
Cold is a State of Mind – and Being
Wrapped in polypropylene, wool and fleece from head to foot against Tuesday’s subzero temperature, Pete Taylor reminded himself of those 70-degree summer days when he and his fellow bike messengers pedaled through downtown St. Paul in shorts and T-shirts.
“You get in an elevator and the lawyers are saying, ‘Geez, wish I could be doing that today,’” said Taylor, 23.
But on Tuesday, when the high temperature was zero and the windchill ____ 1 ____ to 34 below, the attorneys in the elevators clutched their briefcases and gave Taylor a “What are you, nuts?” kind of look.
Some bicycle messengers, those with more common sense or less ____ 2 ____, hang up their wheels for the winter. Not Taylor. “Anyone can do it in the summer,” said the on-again, off-again student.
Neither sleet nor rain nor snow and ice have stopped him from making 30 to 40 runs a day for Metro Legal Services. “Mountain biking is what I love to do,” he said, pulling the green fleece neckwarmer down from his mouth as he talked.
So, while a lot of Minnesotans hunkered inside, Taylor hopped on his bike and headed into a biting wind whistling down Wabasha St., wheeling across ice-covered streets and plowing through snow mush on his way to the Court of Appeals at the State Capitol.
Other workers throughout the Twin Cities also braved the arctic temperatures Tuesday.
St. Paul firefighters, arriving at a fire at an auto parts salvage shop north of downtown, found that the two nearest hydrants were frozen. They had to string a hose from a hydrant a block or two down the street, District Fire Chief Gary John said.
But the cold and ice have kept some workers off their jobs. “The roofers can’t get up [on the roofs] since the ice hit two weeks ago,” said Mike Swanson, construction manager for Rottlund Homes. Some carpenters are idled because lumber is coated with ice and windchills are too ____ 4 ____. Workers can’t put up vinyl siding because it cracks in low temperatures, he said. And the concrete plant shut down today.
“Doing outside work is real tough,” Swanson said.
3. What is the meaning of salvage?
A. the act of saving goods or properties from destruction or danger
B. pawn shop
C. recycling things for conservation
D. purchasing goods for resale
But for those who have to be out, Dr. Yvonne Brutger, emergency room physician at North Memorial Medical Center in Robbinsdale, issued the usual ____ 5 ____: Cover all exposed skin, drink plenty of fluids and avoid alcohol. Motorists should be equipped with warm boots, gloves and pants in case they get stranded and have to walk for help. A sleeping bag should be added to the car for those who travel in rural areas, she said.
Several area emergency rooms reported a few cases of frostbite. St. Paul-Ramsey Medical Center reported eight frostbite cases during the past two days, while 34 cases of fractures from falls on ice outnumbered the frostbite cases Tuesday at Fairview Southdale Hospital in Edina.
When the windchill factor ranges between 30 and 70 degrees below zero, exposed skin will begin to freeze within a minute, said Dr. J.T. Finnell, an emergency room physician at St. Paul-Ramsey.
With one cycling winter under his belt, Pete Taylor figures he knows how to brace against winter’s worst. This year he traded in his cotton long underwear for polypropylene, a ____ 6 ____ that insulates and wicks [carries away] moisture from the skin. And he added a helmet.
“Last winter I wore just a stocking cap with ear flaps. It was a vanity issue,” Taylor said. “But now I don’t mind wearing [the helmet] at all. It presses my hat against my ears.”
His winter ensemble also includes a rag wool sweater, neck warmer, heavy-duty biking gloves, wind pants and a wind jacket. He’s ____ 7 ____ adding a windproof cover to close the vents in his helmet.
“It’s pretty cold out there today,” Taylor said.
A fellow bike messenger, 20-year-old Dave Eilers, said it was so cold that his toes were numb, it was slightly painful to breathe the air and at times he felt the ____ 8 ____ of an “ice-cream” headache. On top of that, Eilers had to hoof it back to the office after his bike gears clogged with road salt, sand, snow and assorted street gunk.
He plans to be back on two wheels as soon as repairs are complete.
9. The information about bike messengers is included in this article to
A. show that people can do an outside job in cold weather if they are prepared.
B. make people afraid to be outside when the windchill is below zero.
C. try to persuade people to become bike messengers.
D. convince people that you should only be a bike messenger during the summer.
10. What did Pete Taylor mean when he said, “Anyone can do it in the summer”?
A. Being a bike messenger is a great job for the summer.
B. Not everyone has the courage to do this job in the winter.
C. This job is only offered in good weather.
D. He cannot be a bike messenger in the summer because he is mountain biking.
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