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The brain of the average human weighs approximately 14 kilograms and consists of three main parts-the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. The cerebrum is by far the largest of the three parts, taking up 85% of the brain by weight. The outside layer of the cerebrum, 5 the cerebral cortex, is a grooved and bumpy surface covering the nerve cells beneath. The various sections of the cerebrum are the sensory cortex, which is responsible for receiving and decoding sensory messages from throughout the body; the motor cortex, which sends action instructions to the skeletal muscles; and the association 10 cortex, which receives, monitors, and processes information. It is in the association cortex that the processes that allow humans to think take place. The cerebellum, located below the cerebrum in the back part of the skull, is the section of the brain that controls balance and posture. The brain stem connects the cerebrum and the 15 spinal cord. It controls various body processes such as breathing and heartbeat.
1. What is the author's main purpose?
(A) To describe the functions of the parts of the brain
(B) To explain how the brain processes information
(C) To demonstrate the physical composition of the brain
(D) To give examples of human body functions
2. The passage states that the most massive part of the brain is the
(C) cerebral cortex
(D) brain stem
3. How does the passage describe the appearance of the cerebral cortex?
(A) As smooth
(B) As 85% of the brain by weight
(C) As a layer of the cerebellum
(D) As ridged
4. According to the passage, which part of the brain analyzes information?
(A) The sensory cortex
(B) The association cortex
(C) The cerebellum
(D) The brain stem
5. The sensory cortex
(A) senses that messages should be sent out to the muscles.
(B) provides a surface covering for nerve cells.
(C) is where the human process of thinking occurs.
(D) receives and processes information from the senses.
6. Which of the following is true about the cerebellum?
(A) It is located above the cerebrum.
(B) It controls breathing.
(C) It is responsible for balance.
(D) It is the outside layer of the cerebrum.
7. What shape does the brain stem most likely have?
(A) Small and round
(B) Long and thin
(C) Large and formless
(D) Short and flat
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